What are the Indices of Multiple Deprivation?
The Indices of Multiple Deprivation are the most comprehensive statistical measures of relative deprivation covering the whole of England. The concept of deprivation is a wide one covering a broad range of issues not just financial and takes account of areas including poor housing, homelessness, low attainment and skill levels, lack of employment and worklessness, poor health and high levels of mortality and the inability to easily access key facilities. The Indices are released on an ad-hoc basis by the Department for Communities and Local Government. The latest release, analysed here, replaces the 2010 version.
How the Indices of Deprivation work?
The Indices measure deprivation at a small area level and provide a relative picture of deprivation across the whole of the country. There are 7 distinct aspects of deprivation measured called ‘domains’.
- Income deprivation
- Employment deprivation
- Health deprivation and disability
- Education, skills and training deprivation
- Barriers to housing and services
- Living environment deprivation
- Crime deprivation
A basket of indicators is used to calculate and compare relative deprivation between areas across each of the 7 domains. The data is examined at neighbourhood level or lower super output area (LSOA) of which there are 32,844 in the country and 119 in St. Helens. A relative score and ranking is then produced for each LSOA across each of the domains, thus allowing relative comparison.
The 7 domains are also weighted and combined into a single index of deprivation for each LSOA with a score and ranking. There are also a number of local authority level scores, allowing relative ranking of deprivation across the 326 English local authorities. In addition there are 2 other indices on the set measuring income deprivation affecting children (IDACI) and income deprivation affecting older people (IDAOPI).
Like many authorities across the North West, relative levels of deprivation in St. Helens are high and concentrated.
Overall St. Helens is now ranked as the 36th most deprived local authority in England out of 326.
There are now a total of 28 of the 119 neighbourhoods (LSOAs) in St. Helens that fall within the 10% most deprived LSOAs in the country.
A total of 47 of the 119 LSOAs in St. Helens fall within the 20% most deprived LSOAs within the country.
Nearly a quarter of St. Helens population (41,254 people) live in the 28 LSOAs that fall within the 10% most deprived LSOAs within the country.
The domains of greatest concern and greatest relative deprivation are health deprivation and disability, employment deprivation and income deprivation.
St. Helens ranks as the 12th most deprived local authority of the 326 in the country in terms of relative health deprivation and disability. 39% of St. Helens LSOAs fall within the 10% most deprived nationally.
St. Helens ranks as the 16th most deprived authority in terms of relative employment deprivation. 29% of St. Helens LSOAs fall within the most 10% most deprived nationally. 18,401 people are deemed to be employment deprived.
St. Helens ranks as the 38th most deprived authority in terms of relative income deprivation. Nearly a quarter (24%) of LSOAs within St. Helens fall within the most deprived 10% nationally. Approximately a fifth of St. Helens population is deemed to live in income deprived households.
The table below shows St. Helens relative rankings across each of the 7 deprivation domains against all 326 local authorities, with a rank of 1 being most deprived and 326 least deprived.
The Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) measures the proportion of all children 0 to 15 living in income deprived families. This measure of deprivation is widespread across the Borough with a total of 26 LSOAs falling within the 10% most deprived small areas across the country in terms of income deprivation affecting children. 40 LSOAs fall within the 20% most deprived small areas across the country.
The Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI) measures the proportion of all those aged 60 and over who experience income deprivation. The level of this measure of deprivation is not quite as severe as income deprivation affecting children with a total of 15 LSOAs falling within the 10% most deprived small areas across the country. 36 LSOAs fall within the 20% most deprived small areas across the country.