What are the Indices of Multiple Deprivation
The Indices of Multiple Deprivation are the most comprehensive statistical measures of relative deprivation covering the whole of England. The concept of deprivation is a wide one covering a broad range of issues not just financial and takes account of areas including poor housing, homelessness, low attainment and skill levels, lack of employment and worklessness, poor health and high levels of mortality and the inability to easily access key facilities. The Indices are released on an ad-hoc basis by the Department for Communities and Local Government. The latest release (IMD, 2019), analysed here, replaces the 2015 version.
How does the Indices of Deprivation Work?
The Indices measure deprivation at a small area (or neighbourhood) level and provide a relative picture of deprivation across the whole of the country. There are 7 distinct aspects of deprivation measured called ‘domains’.
- Income deprivation
- Employment deprivation
- Health deprivation and disability
- Education, skills and training deprivation
- Barriers to housing and services
- Living environment deprivation
- Crime deprivation
A basket of indicators is used to calculate and compare relative deprivation between areas across each of the 7 domains. The data is examined at neighbourhood level or lower super output area (LSOA) of which there are 32,844 in the country and 119 in St. Helens. A relative score and ranking is then produced for each LSOA across each of the domains, thus allowing relative comparison.
The 7 domains are also weighted and combined into a single index of deprivation for each LSOA with a score and ranking. There are also a number of local authority level scores, allowing relative ranking of deprivation across the 326 English local authorities. In addition there are 2 other indices on the set measuring income deprivation affecting children (IDACI) and income deprivation affecting older people (IDAOPI).
Key Findings for St. Helens
Like many authorities across the North West, relative levels of deprivation in St. Helens are high and concentrated.
Overall St. Helens is now ranked as the 26th most deprived local authority in England out of 317. Its relative position has worsened since the 2015 Index of Deprivation where St Helens was ranked as the 36th most deprived area (out of then 326 authorities).
There are now a total of 29 of the 119 neighbourhoods (LSOAs) in St. Helens that fall within the 10% most deprived LSOAs in the country, compared to 28 in 2015.
Almost half of the LSOAs in St. Helens fall within the 20% most deprived LSOAs within the country.
Almost one quarter of St. Helens population (42,877 people) live in the 29 LSOAs that fall within the 10% most deprived LSOAs within the country.
The domains of greatest concern and greatest relative deprivation are health deprivation and disability, employment deprivation and income deprivation.
St. Helens ranks as the 8th most deprived local authority of the 317 in the country in terms of relative health deprivation and disability, compared to 12th of 326 in 2015. Over 40% of St. Helens LSOAs fall within the 10% most deprived nationally.
St. Helens ranks as the 9th most deprived authority in terms of relative employment deprivation, compared to 16th out of 326 authorities in 2015. Over 16,500 people in the area are deemed to be employment deprived (17% of the working age population).
St. Helens ranks as the 34th most deprived authority in terms of relative income deprivation. Nearly a quarter (24%) of LSOAs within St. Helens fall within the most deprived 10% nationally. Over 32,000 people in the area are deemed to live in income deprived households (18% of the total population).
The table below shows St. Helens relative rankings across each of the 7 deprivation domains against all 317 local authorities, with a rank of 1 being most deprived and 317 least deprived.
|Income Deprivation Domain||Employment Deprivation Domain||Health Deprivation & Disability Domain||Education & Skills Deprivation Domain||Crime Deprivation Domain||Barriers to Housing & Services Deprivation Domain||The Living Environment Deprivation Domain|
|St. Helens Rank of Average Score 2019 (out of 317)||34||9||8||72||87||301||169|
|St. Helens Rank of Average Score 2015 (out of 326)||38||16||12||109||116||286||143|
The Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) measures the proportion of all children aged 0 to 15 years living in income deprived families. This measure of deprivation is widespread across the Borough with a total of 30 LSOAs falling within the 10% most deprived small areas across the country in terms of income deprivation affecting children, compared to 26 in 2015.
The highest levels of income deprivation affecting children are found in Parr, Town Centre and Bold Wards. Over 7,500 children aged 0 to 15 years live in income deprived families, representing 24% of the 0-15 population. In the Parr Stocks Road LSOA, the most deprived neighbourhood in St. Helens, 63% of children aged 0 to 15 are living in income deprived families.
The Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI) measures the proportion of all those aged 60 and over who experience income deprivation. The areas with the highest levels of income deprivation affecting older people are to be found in Parr, Bold, the Town Centre and Earlestown. Over 7,700 older people (aged 60 and over) experience income deprivation in St. Helens. This represents almost 17% of the over 60 years population.
Further Data and Resources
Deprivation explorer – use this interactive map to explore levels of deprivation within neighbourhoods.